Thieves oil, and the individual oils in it, are incredibly powerful
and effective against bacteria, germs, viruses, fungus and mold.
MRSA, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Penicillium digitatum, mold,
various fungi and other microbes have all been subjects of studies and are no match for the power of Thieves.
A study by Weber State University found that diffused Thieves essential oil blend has a 99.96 percent kill rate against airborne bacteria after only 10 minutes of exposure.
The Essential Oil Desk Reference explains:
“Studies conducted at Weber State University (Ogden, UT) during 1997 showed the antibacterial effectiveness of the Thieves blend against airborne microorganisms. One study showed a 90 percent reduction in the number of gram positive Micrococcus luteus organisms after diffusing for 12 minutes. After 20 minutes of diffusing, the kill-rate jumped to 99.3 percent. Another study against the gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a kill rate of 99.6 percent after just 12 minutes of diffusion.”
Authors: Chao, SC | Young, DG | Oberg, CJ
Journal: Journal of Essential Oil Research [J. Essent. Oil Res.]. Vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 517-523. Sep-Oct 1998.
Location: Weber State University, Ogden, UT
Thieves, a commercial blend of five essential oils, was tested for its antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosols. An aerosol suspension of each bacterial culture was sprayed into a 0.4 m super(3) enclosed fume hood previously sterilized by ultraviolet light. Thieves essential oil blend was then diffused into the hood for a given time. Depositional sampling results showed a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in the aerosol-borne bacterial load after diffusion of the oil blend. Controls showed no inhibitory effect of oil that may have settled on the exposed plate surfaces during bacterial depositional sampling. Inhibition levels appear to be organism specific. There was an 82% reduction in M. luteus bioaerosol, a 96% reduction in the P. aeruginosa bioaerosol, and a 44% reduction in the S. aureus bioaerosol following 10 min of exposure. Results for the time exposure threshold of diffused oil showed that after only six min a 90% reduction in M. luteus viability occurred.
Diffusion of the oil blend, Thieves, can significantly reduce the number of aerosol-borne bacteria and may have application in treating air for enclosed environments and preventing transmission of aerosol-borne bacterial pathogens.
Cinnamon bark oil, a potent fungitoxicant against fungi causing respiratory tract mycoses.
Singh HB, Srivastava M, Singh AB, Srivastava AK.
Centre for Biochemical Technology, Delhi, India.
Cinnamic aldehyde has been identified as the active fungitoxic constituent of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil. The fungitoxic properties of the vapours of the oil/active constituent against fungi involved in respiratory tract mycoses, i.e., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans A. flavus, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, were determined in vitro as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum lethal concentration (MLC), inoculum density sustained, and exposure duration for fungicidal action at MIC and higher doses, as well as effect of incubation temperatures on fungitoxicity. It is concluded that these inhalable vapours appear to approach the ideal chemotherapy for respiratory tract mycoses.
Three of the oils in Thieves (cinnamon bark, lemon-grass and thyme) tested the highest out of 14 oils for inhibitory effects against respiratory tract pathogens Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, including some penicillin-resistant strains, at Teikyo University Institute of Medical Mycology, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.
Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact.
Inouye S, Takizawa T, Yamaguchi H.
Teikyo University Institute of Medical Mycology, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0395, Japan.
The antibacterial activity of 14 essential oils and their major constituents in the gaseous state was evaluated against Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. For most essential oils examined, H. influenzae was most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes, and then S. aureus. Penicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae were comparable in susceptibility. Escherichia coli, which was used as a control, showed least susceptibility. A minimal inhibitory dose (MID) was introduced as a measure of the vapour activity. Among 14 essential oils, cinnamon bark, lemon-grass and thyme oils showed the lowest MID, followed by essential oils containing terpene alcohols as major constituents. The essential oils containing terpene ketone, ether and, in particular, hydrocarbon had high MIDS. The vapour activity on short exposure was comparable to that following overnight exposure, and rapid evaporation was more effective than slow evaporation of essential oils. The vapour concentration and absorption into agar of essential oils reached a maximum 1 or 2 h after rapid evaporation. These results indicate that the antibacterial action of essential oils was most effective when at high vapour concentration for a short time.
Ooi LS, Li Y, Kam SL, Wang H, Wong EY, Ooi VE.
Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed.
Matan N, Rimkeeree H, Mawson AJ, Chompreeda P, Haruthaithanasan V, Parker M.
Faculty of Agro-Industry, Department of Product Development, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. firstname.lastname@example.org
Mixtures of cinnamon and clove oils were tested for inhibitory activity against important spoilage microorganism of intermediate moisture foods. Four fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor plumbeus and Eurotium sp.), four yeasts species (Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia membranaefaciens, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida lipolytica), and two bacteria species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pediococcus halophilus) inoculated separately on agar plates were sealed in a barrier pouch and exposed to essential oil volatiles under a modified atmosphere of low O2 (<0.05-10%) and high CO2 (20% or 40%), with the balance being N2. A. flavus and Eurotium sp. proved to be the most resistant microorganisms. Cinnamon and clove oils added between 1000 and 4000 microL at a ratio of 1:1 were tested for minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) against molds and yeasts. The gas phase above 1000 microL of the oil mixture inhibited growth of C. lipolytica and P. membranaefaciens; 2000 microL inhibited growth of A. flavus, P. roqueforti, M. plumbeus, Eurotium sp., D. hansenii, and Z. rouxii, while inhibition of A. flavus required the addition of 4000 microL. Higher ratios of cinnamon oil/clove oil were more effective for inhibiting the growth of A. flavus.
A. Rodriguez, C. Nerin* and R. Batlle
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS-University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza, Spain
J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (15), pp 6364–6369
Publication Date (Web): July 16, 2008
A new active paper package based on the incorporation of cinnamon essential oil to solid wax paraffin as an active coating is proposed, developed, and evaluated. The antifungal activity of the active paper is tested against Rhizopusstolonifer, and the results demonstrate that 6% (w/w) of the essential oil in the active coating formulation completely inhibits the growth of R. stolonifer, whereas 4% still has strong antimicrobial activity in in vitro conditions. Then, active paper is evaluated with actual food, sliced bread, using different storage times. After 3 days of storage, almost complete inhibition is obtained with 6% cinnamon essential oil. Qualitative analysis by solid-phase microextraction and determination of cinnamaldehyde in the sliced bread were also performed and confirmed the strong correspondence between the inhibition of the mold and the amount of cinnamaldehyde in the bread.
(Chitosan is a non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable polymer found in materials often considered to be waste, such as shellfish and fungal cell walls. It has many applications, including food preservation).
Lina Wang, Fei Liu, Yanfeng Jiang, Zhi Chai, Pinglan Li, Yongqiang Cheng, Hao Jing*, and Xiaojing Leng*
CAU&ACC Joint-Laboratory of Space Food, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy Science of Beijing and Ministry of Education, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, China Agricultural University, No. 17 Qinghua East Road, Haidian, Beijing 100083, China
J. Agric. Food Chem., 2011, 59 (23), pp 12411–12419
Publication Date (Web): October 29, 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society
The synergistic antimicrobial activities of three natural essential oils (i.e., clove bud oil, cinnamon oil, and star anise oil) with chitosan films were investigated. Cinnamon oil had the best antimicrobial activity among three oils against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Penicillium digitatum. The chitosan solution exhibited good inhibitory effects on the above bacteria except the fungi, whereas chitosan film had no remarkable antimicrobial activity. The cinnamon oil–chitosan film exhibited a synergetic effect by enhancing the antimicrobial activities of the oil, which might be related to the constant release of the oil. The cinnamon oil–chitosan film had also better antimicrobial activity than the clove bud oil–chitosan film. The results also showed that the compatibility of cinnamon oil with chitosan in film formation was better than that of the clove bud oil with chitosan. However, the incorporated oils modified the mechanical strengths, water vapor transmission rate, moisture content, and solubility of the chitosan film. Furthermore, chemical reaction took place between cinnamon oil and chitosan, whereas phase separation occurred between clove bud oil and chitosan.
Flaxman D, Griffiths P.
Queen Mary’s Hospital, Sidcup, Kent.
In vitro studies show that tea tree oil is capable of killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a laboratory setting. This review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken to find out whether it is effective at eradicating MRSA colonization compared to standard mupirocin-based regimens in colonized patients. A wide range of databases and internet Sources were searched to identify published and unpublished studies. Two RCTs were found that researched the effectiveness of tea tree oil preparations against MRSA. One small RCT (n = 30) showed a large but non-significant improvement at eradicating MRSA compared to traditional treatment, whereas a larger study (n = 224) demonstrated little difference in rates of eradication overall (41% for tea tree and 49% for mupirocin, p = 0.286). However, the larger study found that those with nasal colonization receiving a tea tree regimen were more likely to remain colonized with MRSA in the nose (absolute risk increase 31%, p<0.001). Currently there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of tea tree oil in clinical practice for eradication of MRSA colonization.
Dryden MS, Dailly S, Crouch M.
Department of Microbiology and Communicable Disease, Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Romsey Road, Winchester, Hampshire SO22 5DG, UK.
Two topical MRSA eradication regimes were compared in hospital patients: a standard treatment included mupirocin 2% nasal ointment, chlorhexidine gluconate 4% soap, silver sulfadiazine 1% cream versus a tea tree oil regimen, which included tea tree 10% cream, tea tree 5% body wash, both given for five days. One hundred and fourteen patients received standard treatment and 56 (49%) were cleared of MRSA carriage. One hundred and ten received tea tree oil regimen and 46 (41%) were cleared. There was no significant difference between treatment regimens (Fisher’s exact test; P = 0.0286). Mupirocin was significantly more effective at clearing nasal carriage (78%) than tea tree cream (47%; P = 0.0001) but tea tree treatment was more effective than chlorhexidine or silver sulfadiazine at clearing superficial skin sites and skin lesions. The tea tree preparations were effective, safe and well tolerated and could be considered in regimens for eradication of MRSA carriage.